Fitness & Wellness Corner – December 2018

Yates has Boxing!?
John Liuzzi, USA Boxing Certified Coach and Yates Group Fitness Instructor
first in a series

And it’s part of group fitness? Yes and yes! But what’s even cooler is that it has a connection to Georgetown’s storied boxing history.

While most people know Yates has a large variety of excellent group fitness courses, they’re often surprised to learn that includes boxing instruction. And to answer the immediate question that usually comes up: yes, we’ll teach you how to actually fight.

The classes are designed to replicate the training you’d get if you walked into an old-school boxing gym and told the grizzled trainer with the ancient sweatshirt “I wanna learn to box!” We do use a group format at first, as everyone needs to get the fundamentals down – how to stand, move, punch, etc. But once you start to get it, you’ll work first in smaller groups and then individually to refine and advance your technique, just like in a real boxing gym.

That means the first few sessions aren’t really much of a workout. But as any of our advanced students can tell you, the workload rapidly increases as you progress from learning the technique to actually applying it, whether on the heavy bag, with a partner working the punch mitts, or even sparring in the ring. Until you’ve tried it, you won’t believe how tiring it is to hit something continually for up to 3 minutes (amateur rounds are 2 min long, so we train for 3).

We’ll teach you everything you need to know, from the ground up: offense, defense, ring tactics, and fight strategy. We focus on fundamentals, so wherever your boxing journey takes you, you’ll be able to accomplish your goals. As this is Georgetown, be careful you don’t get us started talking about boxing history, classic ring literature, or philosophical views on the sweet science…

And if you’ve actually boxed before, you’re more than welcome too…you can skip the basics and get right to the workout. We do our best to find appropriate sparring matches too – so whether you’re a returning student from a previous year, or a former golden gloves competitor looking to keep your hand in the game as you now focus on more scholarly pursuits (yes, this actually happened), we’ll try to make sure you get the ring time you want.

So what about that connection to Georgetown boxing history? Two words: Tom Quinn.

Tom (C’55) worked with Yates to ignite a boxing renaissance at Georgetown at the turn of the century, and it’s been going strong ever since. Right, right, but does it really matter who did it? Yes…it does. Go to McDonough Gymnasium and inspect the trophy cases – you’ll immediately see why.

Keep your hands up!

John Liuzzi, USA Boxing Certified Coach and Yates Group Fitness Instructor

Fitness & Wellness Corner – November 2018

Dark Gray background with a navigation symbol on the left. Mint green text reads, Let's Take This Outside. Exercise, That Is. By Christie L. Simoson, Assistant Fitness Director

It’s that time of year again! Our outside workout regimens are becoming harder to attain due to the temperature creeping lower and lower. You may be the type of person that has a shiver automatically run down your spine when just THINKING about going outside in the cold. But guess what, it doesn’t have to be quite that bad, so long as you know how to properly dress for the occasion. So how should you dress in order to exercise outside in the winter, you may ask?

First, we’ll explain the why. Why is it important to dress appropriately? In relation to our topic today, I will give you a scenario: Imagine you are outside walking to your car (you parked pretty far away). In this scenario, it is cold outside, and you are losing body heat. This is where your body’s safety gear kicks in and says (not literally, of course), “time to rev up the heat in here!”  In order to produce heat, one’s body does so through muscle activity. If you are not doing enough of it (i.e. exercising), your body will initiate involuntary muscle activity, such as shivering (Carlson, 2012, pg. 8). However, once your body temperature drops to a certain number, the shivering ceases and you are well on your way to hypothermia. Hypothermia is the lowering of the core body temperature to below 95 degrees Fahrenheit (Carlson, 2012, pg. 10). This can occur any time in environmental conditions that are colder than internal body temperature. Symptoms of hypothermia include: shivering, pale skin, and bluing of the lips, hands, and feet (McGill, 2019, pg. 165). Additional signs of hypothermia include stumbling or decreased coordination, fatigue, drowsiness, impaired judgement, and lack of self-concern (Carlson, 2012, pg. 10). This leads us back to why it is so important to dress smart! Now, how do we do this? Let’s start at the top!

Background has little gray and purple winter hats. Text in the foreground says, "Wear Headgear"

Seeing that your head is actually a place in which your body extracts heat, wearing a hat allows you to keep the heat in your body. You also may experience a discomfort of breathing in cold air because it is just ‘too cold’. Well, that just may be the case! Your lungs appreciate warmer air, as this improves humidification which reduces the irritation cold air causes (Carlson, 2012, pg. 10). This cold air issue can be easily resolved by wearing a piece of fabric like a mask or scarf over your mouth and nose; the breath you exhale is warming this area, and the fresh oxygen will in turn be warmed prior to entering your body. This eliminates the uncomfortable feeling of breathing in cold air all together.

Magenta background with an illustration of a shirt, jacket, and coat. Text says, "Layer Up"

…but in a smart way. Think about this: when you exercise, your body’s safety mechanism from overheating is to sweat. Your body pulls the heat from under your skin, creating sweat droplets on the surface of your skin to cool you off, which then evaporate (Roy, 2013, pg. 3). You may be thinking, “but it’s cold outside, I’m not going to sweat.” Well, that can be a false statement, as you can still sweat outside in the cold. Tying it back together, imagine you begin to sweat while exercising, but you are wearing layers of clothing which trap those sweat droplets in, in turn making your clothing a little damp; we all know this is not a good thing in the winter. This is why it is important to continue to wear clothing with ventilation and wicking material during the winter months. To break it down, I suggest wearing first a wicking layer to extract the sweat, followed by an insulation layer to trap in the warm air, and then lastly, a wind and rain repellent layer (which can be removed if it is not raining or windy out). In regards to types of fabric, I suggest synthetics (i.e. polypropylene) for the wicking layer, a fleece or synthetic for the insulation layer (NOT COTTON), and then a shell layer that will allow sweat out, and prevent wind or moisture from seeping in (Carlson, 2012, pg. 9).

Lastly, try wearing darker clothes. On the opposite side of what they say to do in the summer, feel free to wear clothes which will attract sunlight. While we do encourage you to wear a bright/reflective vest or strap for safety reasons, wearing a darker color underneath can help absorb the sunlight.

Background contains winter gear icons including mittens, socks, and earmuffs. Text in foreground reads, "Wrap Up The Extremities"

Gloves, mittens, and socks, OH MY! Be sure to at least cover your ears if you are not willing to wear a hat. When you are very cold and have hypothermia, your body will warm what it deems necessary to survive. In extreme cases where an individual may be stuck in the cold for a very long time, your body experiences vasoconstriction, which is when the body reduces the blood flow to the surface tissues under the skin, in turn retaining heat (Morrison, 2010, pg. 47). Vasoconstriction causes the blood to circulate the warm blood around the vital organs, leaving your extremities to get cold. This is why you typically see frostbite on an individual’s hands, feet, nose, and ears; your body knows that these tissues are not vital, so the warm blood is focused on the center of your body, where organs such as your heart, lungs, liver, etc. are located. Wearing warmer socks with a thin wool component help keep your feet dry and warm. This will help prevent those awful foot blisters we all strongly dislike as well. In sum, always cover your extremities to keep them warm!

Mint green background with three illustrated pairs of sunglasses. Text reads, "Other Tips"

Don’t forget about sunscreen and sunglasses. If your face is uncovered, those delightful rays of sunshine can still cause damage to your skin. Be sure to keep it protected. Also, the winter months are typically very bright due to the white snow. Add a little dampness to the mix, and you have yourself what I like to call snow blindness (yes, it’s a thing). Sunglasses can help reduce some of those glares and even reduce vision-related headaches due to these reflections, ensuring you can fully see where you are stepping so you do not injure yourself (Bird, 2013)! Lastly, I advise you to bring a cell phone along for the run. It may be rare for an individual to get stuck in the cold due to an injury while exercising, but guess what? It happens!! Keeping a cell phone on you will allow you to make that urgent phone call if something were to happen in which you needed assistance right then and there, or if you come across another individual who was injured and has been exposed to the cold for quite some time.

Background contains icons illustrating winter gear including sunglasses, mittens, hats, socks, earmuffs, and jackets. Text in foreground reads, "Wrap It Up".

In summary, the proper way to dress in the cold in preparation for exercise is to wear a hat, gloves, warm socks, and to wear appropriate layers. Give this piece of advice a try, and let me know what you think! I promise it makes a difference and will maybe even get you to enjoy exercising outside when the temperature drops.

 

References:

  1. Bird, C. (2013, December 26). Why Wearing Sunglasses in Winter Is Important. Retrieved from https://www.sweye.com/blog/general/why-wearing-sunglasses-in-winter-is-important/
  2. Carlson, M. J. (2012). Exercising In The Cold. ACSMs Health & Fitness Journal,16(1), 8-12. doi:10.1249/fit.0b013e31823cf99b
  3. McGill, E. A. (2019). Principles of Group Fitness Instruction (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  4. Morrison, G. (2010). Exercise in the Cold. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal,14(6), 47-49.
  5. Roy, B. A. (2013). Exercise and Fluid Replacement. ACSM’s Health and Fitness Journal,17(4), 3.

 

This blog post was written to provide educational information only. This article should not be used as a substitute or a replacement for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have questions or concerns about your personal health, you should always consult with your physician. It is recommended that you consult with your physician or health care professional before beginning any fitness regimen to determine if it is suitable for your needs. The use of any information provided by this article is solely at your risk.

 

Fitness & Wellness Corner – October 2018

When “Hanger” Strikes – The Reactionary Chain
of 
Hormone Response to Hunger
Maegen C. Stoner, Director, Fitness & Wellness

Have you ever felt the emotional impact that takes over when you’ve gone too long without food? Someone might label you as “hangry”, irritable, and/or grouchy. I’ll raise my hand for most of us 🙂 Usually if I’m in a foul mood, most people (especially my husband) will ask when was the last time I ate?  I’m the 30-year old that carries snacks in her purse for herself ( I don’t have children yet!) Well guess what, there’s actually some science behind this phenomenon that has recently been published to explain why this might happen.

“Empirical evidence demonstrates that emotions impact every aspect of our waking lives, from visual perception to decision making and interpersonal processes” (MacCormack & Lindquist, 2018, pg. 1). There is a small body of scientific research that explains the hunger-induced emotionality or feeling of hanger is more that a mere colloquialism. Studies have shown that individuals who have not eaten and have entered a glucose-depleted state tend to be more impulsive, punitive, and aggressive. Additional research links hunger to negative mood as well (MacCormack & Lindquist, 2018). As humans, we are capable of listening to our hunger and satiety cues. However, in the busyness of our daily lives, we often ignore internal signals and wait far too long before consuming sustenance (Lewis, 2018). As we deprive or ignore these signals, our body responds with an emotional reaction, such as anger, anxiety, or stress, to illicit a response for us to seek food. The longer we go without eating, typically the greater the emotional response (Lewis, 2018).

Did you know that your stomach and brain are connected to one another? Well surprise, they are! They communicate via signals of hunger and satisfaction. In a recent study conducted by the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers found a correlation between hunger, feeling angry, and having low blood sugar (Lewis, 2018, pg.1). When the time between meals increases, your blood sugar levels drop, which releases several hormones into the body. The release of these hormones then alters an individuals perceptions, experiences, and responses (MacCormack & Lindquist, 2018).

Your body excretes four hormones in response to the feeling of hunger; Ghrelin, Cortisol, Adrenaline, and Neuropeptide Y.

Ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates feelings of hunger and it can also trigger feelings of anxiety in the brain. A release of ghrelin causes your body to recognize that you are hungry and should signal that you should begin eating. As you consume food, the release of ghrelin ceases and the feeling of anxiety dissipates. If you continue to ignore the hunger signal, other hormones in your body can also be disrupted (Lewis, 2018).

As your blood sugar levels drop, your body also releases cortisol and adrenaline, two stress-related hormones. As the presence of these two hormones increases, the body exhibits fight-or-flight and the effects of hunger can present mentally, emotionally, and physically. As you become hungry, the function of your prefrontal cortex is inhibited. This reaction can affect “personality, self control, planning, and can even temporarily shut down long-term memory” (Lewis, 2018, pg.2). The longer you go without eating, stress, anxiety, and loss of patience and/or focus can set in. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration can also increase (Lewis, 2018).

 

Figure 1: Prefrontal Cortex (Dahlitz, 2017).

 

When ghrelin, cortisol, and adrenaline are released and you continue to ignore the feeling of hunger, your body resorts to full fledged panic mode. Basically, hanger in full effect! At this point, the body releases neuropeptide Y. In recent studies, the presence of this hormone has been found to make people behave more aggressively towards others (Lewis, 2018).  Neuropeptide Y is responsible for stimulating food intake and also has an affinity for quickly digestible carbohydrates. The release of neuropeptide Y is also linked to an increased intake of large quantities of food and delays the signal of satiety (Lewis, 2018).

Research suggests that you be mindful and prepared. Listen to your body for cues. If you are becoming irritable, think about when the last time you ate was. Hunger may be the cause for this irritability. Take a brief break and find a snack that aligns with healthy eating. A good rule of thumb is that most people should not go more that 4-5 hours between meals. Developing a healthy eating pattern will help decrease the likelihood of “hanger” and balance out your blood glucose levels so you avoid sharp peaks and low drops (Lewis, 2018). We want to avoid the roller coaster effect!

So remember when I was revealing about my snacks on hand habit? I do this so I’m always prepared whether I’m stuck in traffic, attending a meeting over the lunch hour, or just have not made the time to have a meal. I too get caught up in an overbooked schedule periodically.    Look for travel-friendly snacks that can be readily available. It’s best to have a snack that has carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and fiber. The carbohydrates will provide a quick source of energy, while the protein, fats, and fiber will provide longevity as they are digested slower and keep you feeling fuller for longer. Having snacks on hand helps to keep us from reaching for less healthy options that likely lack the nutrition your body needs.

 

Resources:

Lewis, Rebecca. (2018) The Science of Hanger. Retrieved June 25, 2018, from https://www.acefitness.org/education-and-resources/professional/expert-articles/7006/the-science-of-hanger.

MacCormack, J.K., & Lindquist, K.A. (2018). Feeling Hangry? When Hunger Is Conceptualized as Emotion. American Psychological Association, pp. 1 -17.

Dahlitz, M. (2017, January 4). Prefrontal Cortex [Digital image]. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.neuropsychotherapist.com/prefrontal-cortex/.

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This blog post was written to provide educational information only. This article should not be used as a substitute or a replacement for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have questions or concerns about your personal health, you should always consult with your physician. It is recommended that you consult with your physician or health care professional before beginning any fitness regimen to determine if it is suitable for your needs. The use of any information provided by this article is solely at your risk.

Fitness & Wellness Corner – September 2018

How much rest should you really be taking between sets? by Christie L. Simoson, Assistant Fitness Director

We’ve all experienced it – waiting for a piece of equipment and getting aggravated seeing the individual currently ‘utilizing’ said piece of equipment for what seems to be forever. Then, we can’t help but think to ourselves, how productive are they actually being, resting for 5 minutes between each set? On the opposite side of the spectrum, you may have experienced an individual who is like the energizer bunny, with no breaks and a ‘go, go, go’ workout attitude. This brings forth a question that is asked frequently – “how much rest is too little or too much between sets?” I am hoping to give you the answer you are looking for.

Let’s start with why it is important to rest between sets. The rest period dictates the metabolic stress of the workout and influences the amount of resistance that can be used during each set or exercise. You see, the ATP-CP system, which is the primary energy system used during resistance exercises, needs to be replenished. This process takes time (Bushman et al., 2014)! Furthermore, “A rest interval is essential to re-establish intra muscular blood flow and oxygen delivery that allows for the replenishment and restoration, returning the muscle membrane to resting levels (Willardson, 2008)”. If you continue to exercise with no rest, you are continuously breaking down your intra muscular structure, where it cannot repair/recover fast enough to provide the strength you may need to complete the exercise you are performing. According to Bushman et al., “the duration of the rest period significantly influences the metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular responses to a short-term bout of resistance exercise, as well as the performance of subsequent sets.” Therefore, not only is it important to rest between sets/exercises to help repair and prepare your muscles for the next bout, but the duration of the rest period can positively – or negatively – affect your workout regimen as well.

If you continue to exercise with no rest, you are continuously breaking down your intra muscular structure, where it cannot repair/recover fast enough to provide the strength you may need to complete the exercise you are performing.

Okay, time to define a goal. Many individuals begin a resistance training program to increase muscular power, strength, hypertrophy, or endurance. Your exercise regimen should be geared toward your main goal. For example, you would not be running mileage every day if your main goal was to increase muscle mass (hypertrophy), right? The same goes for rest between sets. The amount of time you want to take to rest between each set and/or exercise depends on what you are training for and what your desired goal is. Typically, a longer rest period is recommended for large muscle mass multi-joint exercises (i.e. squat, deadlift), whereas a shorter rest period may be sufficient for a smaller muscle mass single-joint exercise like a bicep curl (Bushman et al., 2014).

Below should give you an idea as to what your rest interval should look like when taking your goal into consideration:

Muscular Strength – 2-3 minutes between sets Muscular Power – 1-2 minutes for lower intensity, 2-3 for higher intensity Muscular hypertrophy – 1-2 minutes between sets Muscular endurance - <30 seconds between sets

If the goal is to increase both muscle mass and strength, both a long rest (with heavy loading) and short rest (with moderate loading) should be included. One way to determine if you are getting enough rest between sets is to be on the lookout for loss of force production (Bushman et al., 2014). If this occurs, you should practice longer rest periods. In sum, the heavier the resistance, the more rest that should be allotted between sets and exercises.

Another factor you may want to consider when determining the rest period for your exercise regimen includes your training age (how long you have been training); A longer rest period may be necessary until you have adapted both physiologically and psychologically, being able to perform the same given exercise and amount of weight/resistance with a shorter rest interval between sets (Willardson, 2008).

Want help crushing your goal by working one-on-one with one of our nationally certified personal trainers through a scientifically backed workout regimen? Click here!

There you have it! The rest between sets varies depending on your goal and experience. So while you may only take 20 seconds of rest between sets (with a goal of muscular endurance), it may be necessary for another to take a 3-minute break due to the fact that your goals are on opposite spectrums! While there isn’t a perfect solution to get on that piece of equipment you have been waiting a long time for, don’t be afraid to ask to work-in with them between sets!

This blog post was written to provide educational information only. This article should not be used as a substitute or a replacement for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have questions or concerns about your personal health, you should always consult with your physician. It is recommended that you consult with your physician or healthcare professional before beginning any fitness regimen to determine if it is suitable for your needs. The use of any information provided by this article is solely at your risk.

References:

Bushman, B. A., & Battista, R. (2014). ACSMs Resources for the Personal Trainer (4th ed.), 378-382. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

Willardson, J. M. (2008). A Brief Review: How Much Rest between Sets? Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(3), 44-50. doi:10.1519/ssc.0b013e31817711a4

Fitness & Wellness Corner – August 2018

Which comes first- resistance exercise or aerobic exercise in concurrent training? Maegen C. Stoner, Director, Fitness and Wellness

A few helpful definitions: Aerobic Exercise- the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) defines aerobic or cardiovascular exercise as any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmic in nature. A few examples of aerobic exercise include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, hiking, stair climbing, rope jumping, cross-country skiing, skating, rowing, and dancing (The Exercise and Physical Fitness Page, 2018). Resistance Exercise- exercise in which a muscle contraction is opposed by a force to increase strength or endurance (The Medical Dictionary, 2018). Benefits of resistance exercises include increases in strength, muscle mass, and bone density. Properly performed resistance training has a positive impact on the entire musculoskeletal system (ACE, 2014, p. 326). Concurrent Training- the sequential training of both aerobic/cardiovascular and resistance exercises during the same training session or within hours of one another (Kravitz, 2018).

Aerobic exercise and resistance training are the two most utilized and common modalities chosen when engaging in physical activity. Aerobic exercise is effective in improving one’s cardiorespiratory fitness (hence the term “cardio”), energy expenditure, and fat utilization. Resistance exercise or training serves to improve the musculoskeletal system by gains in muscle size, strength, endurance, and power. “It is recommended that a comprehensive training routine combines both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise because improvements in both cardiorespiratory function and musculoskeletal function allow individuals not only to reduce health risks and symptoms associated with physical inactivity but also perform activities of daily living” (Kang, 2014, p.9).

“Concurrent training of either resistance training before aerobic training or aerobic training before resistance training can elicit both aerobic and anaerobic adaptations simultaneously provided that the training program is carefully designed” (Kang, 2014, p.13) .  There are some unique advantages associated with the sequence of the training elements. For example, research has shown that performing aerobic exercise first helps develop maximal aerobic power and that it can enhance post-exercise energy expenditure. It is important to note that engaging in a session of high intensity or long duration aerobic exercise may compromise the quality of the following resistance exercise component (Kang, 2014, p.11).

On the other hand, resistance training is favored when looking to develop strength, power, and muscle hypertrophy.  This sequence of training may be of particular interest to those whose sport demand strength and power. The resistance training before aerobic exercise modality can yield some metabolic benefits and the “high intensity nature of resistance training can potentiate energy expenditure and create a metabolic environment that favors fat utilization during a subsequent aerobic exercise session” (Kang, 2014, p. 12).

“It is recommended that a comprehensive training routine combines both aerobic exercise and resistance exercise because improvements in both cardiorespiratory function and musculoskeletal function allow individuals not only to reduce health risks and symptoms associated with physical inactivity but also perform activities of daily living”

So I’m sure you’re wondering what’s the answer? This is a question that we receive frequently. While there are several factors to consider when designing and implementing a program, it really just depends on what your fitness goals or desired outcomes are for the order in which you perform concurrent training. There is no right or wrong answer or that one way is significantly better than the other, it is simply dictated by your overall goal, whether that be aerobic power, strength or power gains, endurance training, etc.. Choosing aerobic exercise or resistance exercise first ensures the quality of the training segment based on your set of goals.

The overall design of concurrent training should consider a few variables; “exercise selection and sequence, intensity and volume, frequency, repetition velocity, and rest intervals” (Kang, 2014, p.12). These considerations should be based on goals, expected outcomes, and the training status of the individual.  It is recommended for healthy individuals to engage in moderate intensity exercise coupled with moderate volume for both modes of exercise regardless of sequence order. Concurrent training may be administered 3 to 4 times a week on nonconsecutive days to maximize recovery in-between workouts. The two exercise sections may additionally be separated by a rest period of 5-10 minutes (Kang, 2014, p.13).  It is also important to note that “concurrent training seems to produce little to no “interference” in older individuals. In fact, a combination of aerobic training and resistance training is recommended for the elderly as an effective strategy to maintain functional capacity and promote health” (Kang, 2014, p.10).

There are both aerobic and anaerobic benefits to utilizing the concurrent training method of aerobic and resistance exercise when engaging in physical activity. An individual’s fitness or exercise goals and training status typically determine the exercise sequence and intensity in which the training regimens are performed. Individuals seeking to improve cardio power or endurance training may consider pursuing the aerobic-first sequence. Individuals who are involved in sports or events that demand strength and power or are training for hypertrophy may choose the resistance-first sequence.

If you are interested in working with a Yates Certified Personal Trainer to design an exercise program that best fits your needs, please contact Maegen C. Stoner, Director of Fitness & Wellness: mch249@georgetown.edu

References:

Aerobic Exercise [Def, 1]. (n.d.). In Aerobic Exercise, The Exercise and Physical Fitness Page. Retrieved July 24, 2018 from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwfit/aerobice.html.

American Council on Exercise. (2014). Resistance Training: Programming and Progressions. In C. Bryant, S. Jo, & D. Green (Eds.) Personal Trainer Manual (pp. 326-390). American Council on Exercise: USA.

Kang, Jie. (2014) Which comes first? Resistance before Aerobic Exercise or Vice Versa? ACSM Health & Fitness Journal,18(1), 9-14. Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/acsm-healthfitness/Fulltext/2014/01000/Which_Comes_First__Resistance_Before_Aerobic.5.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP.

Kravitz, Len. The Effect of Concurrent Training. Retrieved from https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/concurrent.html.

Resistance Exercise [Def.2]. (n.d.) In The Medical Dictionary. Retrieved July 24, 2018, from https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/resistance+exercise.

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This blog post was written to provide educational information only. This article should not be used as a substitute or a replacement for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have questions or concerns about your personal health, you should always consult with your physician. It is recommended that you consult with your physician or health care professional before beginning any fitness regimen to determine if it is suitable for your needs. The use of any information provided by this article is solely at your risk.